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Buran, Russian Space Shuttle


 The Buran program was a Soviet and later Russian plan for a reusable spacecraft, that began in 1974 at TsAGI and formally suspended in 1993. It was a response to the United States Space Shuttle program.The project was the largest and the most expensive in the history of Soviet space exploration. Development work included sending the BOR-5 on multiple sub-orbital test flights, and atmospheric flights of the OK-GLI. Buran completed one unmanned orbital spaceflight in 1988 before its cancellation in 1993.
Although the Buran spacecraft was similar in appearance to the NASA Space Shuttle, and could similarly function as a re-entry spaceplane, the main engines during launch were on the Energia rocket and not taken into orbit on the spacecraft. The Buran program matched an expendable rocket to a reusable spaceplane.The Buran orbiter which flew the test flight was crushed in the Buran hangar collapse on May 12, 2002 in Kazakhstan. The OK-GLI resides in Technikmuseum Speyer.
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